前言

本篇文章用最简单和快速的方法介绍如何在 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 安装 Oracle Instant Client,该方法同样适用于 Windows,RHEL5/6/7,OEL,CentOS。Oracle Instant Client 是官方免费授权的一种比 Oracle Client 还要简单的数据库管理工具,通过 SQL*Plus 或者其它工具比如 Navicat 等用于快速连接和管理 Oracle 数据库服务器。

Install Oracle instantclient basic and instantclient sqlplus on Linux and Windows.

更新记录

2017 年 08 月 22 日 - 增加 oracle instant client tnsping
2017 年 08 月 14 日 - 补充 ORA-24454: client host name is not set 的解决方案
2017 年 08 月 10 日 - 初稿

阅读原文 - https://wsgzao.github.io/post/oracle-instant-client/

扩展阅读

Oracle Instant Client Downloads - http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/features/instant-client/index-097480.html

Oracle Instant Client Downloads

文章内容均已 64 位版本为例,如果客户端有特殊需求请使用 32 位版本兼容

  1. Linux Oracle Instant Client 推荐使用 RPM 方式安装,如果需要定制具体路径可以使用 zip 包手动配置
  2. Windows 和 Linux 类似但需要主要 PATH 环境变量的配置
  3. 实测 12 版本客户端可以向下兼容 11 版本的数据库服务器,Oracle Instant Client 12.2.0.1.0,Oracle Database 11.2.0.3.0
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file://C:\Dropbox\Oracle Instant Client    (2 folders, 1 files, 5.51 KB, 479.15 MB in total.)
│ README.md 5.51 KB
├─Linux (2 folders, 0 files, 0 bytes, 234.26 MB in total.)
│ ├─11.2.0.4.0 (0 folders, 4 files, 116.57 MB, 116.57 MB in total.)
│ │ instantclient-basic-linux.x64-11.2.0.4.0.zip 57.89 MB
│ │ instantclient-sqlplus-linux.x64-11.2.0.4.0.zip 814.93 KB
│ │ oracle-instantclient11.2-basic-11.2.0.4.0-1.x86_64.rpm 57.09 MB
│ │ oracle-instantclient11.2-sqlplus-11.2.0.4.0-1.x86_64.rpm 808.92 KB
│ └─12.2.0.1.0 (0 folders, 4 files, 117.69 MB, 117.69 MB in total.)
│ instantclient-basic-linux.x64-12.2.0.1.0.zip 65.77 MB
│ instantclient-sqlplus-linux.x64-12.2.0.1.0.zip 883.11 KB
│ oracle-instantclient12.2-basic-12.2.0.1.0-1.x86_64.rpm 50.38 MB
│ oracle-instantclient12.2-sqlplus-12.2.0.1.0-1.x86_64.rpm 691.51 KB
└─Windows (2 folders, 0 files, 0 bytes, 244.89 MB in total.)
├─11.2.0.4.0 (0 folders, 4 files, 103.01 MB, 103.01 MB in total.)
│ instantclient-basic-nt-11.2.0.4.0.zip 49.09 MB
│ instantclient-basic-windows.x64-11.2.0.4.0.zip 52.41 MB
│ instantclient-sqlplus-nt-11.2.0.4.0.zip 739.29 KB
│ instantclient-sqlplus-windows.x64-11.2.0.4.0.zip 801.93 KB
└─12.2.0.1.0 (0 folders, 4 files, 141.88 MB, 141.88 MB in total.)
instantclient-basic-nt-12.2.0.1.0.zip 68.55 MB
instantclient-basic-windows.x64-12.2.0.1.0.zip 71.59 MB
instantclient-sqlplus-nt-12.2.0.1.0.zip 849.21 KB
instantclient-sqlplus-windows.x64-12.2.0.1.0.zip 937.40 KB

下载地址
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/features/instant-client/index-097480.html

百度网盘分流
http://pan.baidu.com/s/1slhoZEH

Linux

以 RPM 最简方式为例

Preparation

Download all the required RPM from the official site and put them on the target system.
Current RPMs for 64bit are:
oracle-instantclient12.2-basic-12.2.0.1.0-1.x86_64.rpm
oracle-instantclient12.2-sqlplus-12.2.0.1.0-1.x86_64.rpm

Install RPMs

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# install as root
rpm -ivh oracle-instantclient12.2-basic-12.2.0.1.0-1.x86_64.rpm oracle-instantclient12.2-sqlplus-12.2.0.1.0-1.x86_64.rpm

# create oracle group and user
groupadd dba
useradd -g dba oracle
echo oracle:oracle | chpasswd

# configure profile
su - oracle
vi ~/.bash_profile

export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/lib/oracle/12.2/client64/lib
export TNS_ADMIN=/usr/lib/oracle/12.2/client64/
export PATH=/usr/lib/oracle/12.2/client64/bin:$PATH

# Connect to Your database with:
sqlplus system/oracle@oracapdb

# create new tnsnames.ora
# ORA-12154: TNS:could not resolve the connect identifier specified
vim /usr/lib/oracle/12.2/client64/tnsnames.ora

oracapdb =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 172.28.70.244)(PORT = 1521))
(CONNECT_DATA =
(SERVER = DEDICATED)
(SERVICE_NAME = oracapdb)
)
)

# You can also use the Easy Connect connection string format (does not use TNSNAMES):
sqlplus system/oracle@//172.28.70.244:1521/oracapdb

# ORA-24454: client host name is not set
# Cause: The network host name in files like /etc/hosts was not set.
# Action: Set the host name and try again.
/bin/bash -c "echo'127.0.1.1 ${HOSTNAME}'>> /etc/hosts"

Windows

Windows 的配置相比 Linux 差不多简单,注意环境变量尤其是 TNS_ADMIN

Preparation

国外一篇图文并茂的文章写的也很详细,有需要可以参考下
Installing Oracle instantclient basic and instantclient sqlplus on win32
http://www.dbatoolz.com/t/installing-oracle-instantclient-basic-and-instantclient-sqlplus-on-win32.html

Go to Instant Client Downloads for Microsoft Windows download page:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/software/tech/oci/instantclient/htdocs/winsoft.html

unzip files

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# 下载解压以下两个包至目录,比如 C:\instantclient_12_2
instantclient-basic-windows.x64-12.2.0.1.0.zip
instantclient-sqlplus-windows.x64-12.2.0.1.0.zip

# 设置环境变量
计算机右键【属性】----【高级系统设置】----【环境变量】----【系统变量】----【Path】

# Setup your system %PATH% and %TNS_ADMIN% variables
C:\instantclient_12_2

# Connect to Your database with:
sqlplus system/oracle@oracapdb

# TNS_ADMIN
# ORA-12154: TNS:could not resolve the connect identifier specified
Variable Name: TNS_ADMIN
Variable Value: C:\instantclient_12_2

# create new tnsnames.ora
C:\instantclient_12_2\tnsnames.ora

oracapdb =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 172.28.70.244)(PORT = 1521))
(CONNECT_DATA =
(SERVER = DEDICATED)
(SERVICE_NAME = oracapdb)
)
)

# You can also use the Easy Connect connection string format (does not use TNSNAMES):
sqlplus system/oracle@//172.28.70.244:1521/oracapdb

tnsping

因为某种原因 Oracle 官方迟迟未在 Oracle Instant Client 里集成 tnsping,尽管不是什么大问题但相信也会给习惯使用 tnsping 命令测试数据库连接的小伙伴带来困扰,我这里推荐采用的方法不是像网上一样复制拷贝 Standard Oracle Client,也不是完全拎起炉灶自己编写一套 tnsping,而是选择使用 Bash Shell 模拟 tnsping

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vim /etc/profile
vim ~/bash_profile

whence tnsping >/dev/null 2>&1 ||
tnsping() {
sqlplus -L -s x/x@$1 </dev/null |
grep ORA- |
(grep -v ORA-01017 || echo OK)
}

$ tnsping db999
ORA-12154: TNS:could not resolve the connect identifier specified
$ tnsping db01
OK
$ tnsping db02
ORA-12541: TNS:no listener
文章目录
  1. 1. 前言
  2. 2. 更新记录
  3. 3. Oracle Instant Client Downloads
  4. 4. Linux
    1. 4.1. Preparation
    2. 4.2. Install RPMs
  5. 5. Windows
    1. 5.1. Preparation
    2. 5.2. unzip files
  6. 6. tnsping