前言

大家对 VMware 或者 VirtualBox 一定不会陌生,虚拟化的好处自然深入人心,而现在我们可以通过 Vagrant 搭建一套类似 Laravel Homestead 完整开发环境,这样极大的减少了架设开发环境的时间,同时还支持在 Windows/Mac/Linux 不同平台上分享定制包,统一团队之间的开发环境提高工作效率,而 Docker 的出现也让未来更值得期待。

用 Vagrant 为自己打造一个奇妙的跨平台开发环境


更新历史

2015 年 07 月 18 日 - 初稿

阅读原文 - https://wsgzao.github.io/post/vagrant/

扩展阅读

Vagrant - https://www.vagrantup.com/
Laravel Homestead - http://laravel.com/docs/5.1/homestead
在 windows 下进行 linux 开发:利用 Vagrant+virtualbox - http://blog.star7th.com/2015/06/1538.html
在 Mac/win7 下上使用 Vagrant 打造本地开发环境 - http://segmentfault.com/a/1190000002645737


环境准备

  1. Git(非必需)
  2. PHP(非必需)
  3. Laravel(非必需)
  4. Composer(非必需)
  5. Vagrant
  6. VirtualBox

如果大家有需要离线安装欢迎直接留言回复哈

安装 git

  1. 下载 GitHub for Windows

https://windows.github.com/

安装 php

建议大家尽量安装当前最新版本的 PHP

  1. 下载 PHP

http://windows.php.net/download/

  1. 解压目录

我的路径 D:\php

  1. 添加环境变量

右键计算机 -> 高级系统设置 -> 环境变量 -> 系统变量 ->PATH

C:\ProgramData\Oracle\Java\javapath;%SystemRoot%\system32;%SystemRoot%;%SystemRoot%\System32\Wbem;%SYSTEMROOT%\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\;C:\nodejs\;D:\php;C:\ProgramData\ComposerSetup\bin

  1. 设置 php.ini

进入 PHP 安装目录(例如 D:\php)。找到 php.ini-development 文件并复制一份到当前目录,重命名为 php.ini,修改以下配置
去掉 extension=php_mbstring.dll 前面的分号(888 行左右)
去掉 extension=php_openssl.dll 前面的分号(893 行左右)
去掉 extension_dir = "ext" 前面的分号(736 行左右)

  1. 使环境变量生效

重启 explorer.exe

安装 Laravel

  1. 下载 Laravel

http://www.golaravel.com/download/

  1. 解压目录

我的路径 D:\laravel-v5.1.4

  1. 启动 Laravel
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d:
cd laravel-v5.1.4
D:\laravel-v5.1.4>php artisan serve
Laravel development server started on http://localhost:8000/

在浏览器中访问 http://localhost:8000/

artisanserve 命令还支持两个参数:

host 设置主机地址
port 设置 web server 监听的端口号
例如:php artisan serve --port=8888

安装 Composer

  1. 下载 Composer-Setup.exe

https://getcomposer.org/doc/00-intro.md#installation-windows

  1. 配置 Composer
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Loading composer repositories with package information
Installing dependencies (including require-dev)
SSL certificate problem, verify that the CA cert is OK. Details:
error:14090086:SSL routines:SSL3_GET_SERVER_CERTIFICATE:certificate verify failed”

如果安装过程提示报错为缺少 CA 证书,下载 cacert.pem 到自定义路径
http://curl.haxx.se/docs/caextract.html

然后修改 php.ini 文件(1983 行左右)

openssl.cafile=D:\php\verify\cacert.pem

  1. 测试 Composer
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composer -V

Composer version 1.0-dev (d79427f1a7b15e8f4d46ce8124a4d0c58ba1479c) 2015-07-04 1
1:22:58

安装 Vagrant

  1. 下载 Vagrant

https://www.vagrantup.com/downloads.html

  1. 离线下载虚拟镜像

https://github.com/tommy-muehle/puppet-vagrant-boxes/releases/download/1.0.0/centos-6.6-x86_64.box

上面给出的是 centos-6.6 镜像下载链接,要下载其他镜像请访问官网
http://www.vagrantbox.es/

安装 VirtualBox

BIOS 里面开启 CPU 硬件虚拟化支持 VT(Virtualization Technology)

  1. 下载 VirtualBox

https://www.virtualbox.org/wiki/Downloads

  1. 导入镜像

设置 VirtualBox 目录并拷贝镜像 centos-6.6-x86_64.box
E:\VirtualBox\centos-6.6-x86_64.box

  1. 命令初始化 Vagrant
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# 切换 VirtualBox 目录 
e:
cd .\VirtualBox

# 输入命令初始化
E:\VirtualBox> vagrant init centos6.6
A `Vagrantfile` has been placed in this directory. You are now
ready to `vagrant up` your first virtual environment! Please read
the comments in the Vagrantfile as well as documentation on
`vagrantup.com` for more information on using Vagrant.

# 执行添加命令
E:\VirtualBox> vagrant box add centos6.6 centos-6.6-x86_64.box
==> box: Adding box 'centos6.6' (v0) for provider:
box: Downloading: file://E:/VirtualBox/centos-6.6-x86_64.box
box: Progress: 100% (Rate: 670M/s, Estimated time remaining: --:--:--)
==> box: Successfully added box 'centos6.6' (v0) for 'virtualbox'!

# 检查是否导入成功
E:\VirtualBox> vagrant box list
centos6.6 (virtualbox, 0)

Vagrant 配置

详细配置文档可以参考官方手册 - https://docs.vagrantup.com/v2/

启动 Vagrant

通过 Shell 进入目录 E:\VirtualBox 后执行命令

vagrant up

顺利启动的完整过程如下所示

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E:\VirtualBox>vagrant up
Bringing machine 'default' up with 'virtualbox' provider...
==> default: Importing base box 'centos6.6'...
==> default: Matching MAC address for NAT networking...
==> default: Setting the name of the VM: VirtualBox_default_1437213832296_68434
==> default: Clearing any previously set forwarded ports...
==> default: Clearing any previously set network interfaces...
==> default: Preparing network interfaces based on configuration...
default: Adapter 1: nat
==> default: Forwarding ports...
default: 22 => 2222 (adapter 1)
==> default: Booting VM...
==> default: Waiting for machine to boot. This may take a few minutes...
default: SSH address: 127.0.0.1:2222
default: SSH username: vagrant
default: SSH auth method: private key
default: Warning: Connection timeout. Retrying...
default:
default: Vagrant insecure key detected. Vagrant will automatically replace
default: this with a newly generated keypair for better security.
default:
default: Inserting generated public key within guest...
default: Removing insecure key from the guest if it's present...
default: Key inserted! Disconnecting and reconnecting using new SSH key...
==> default: Machine booted and ready!
==> default: Checking for guest additions in VM...
default: The guest additions on this VM do not match the installed version of
default: VirtualBox! In most cases this is fine, but in rare cases it can
default: prevent things such as shared folders from working properly. If you see
default: shared folder errors, please make sure the guest additions within the
default: virtual machine match the version of VirtualBox you have installed on
default: your host and reload your VM.
default:
default: Guest Additions Version: 4.3.28
default: VirtualBox Version: 5.0
==> default: Mounting shared folders...
default: /vagrant => E:/VirtualBox

虚拟机启动之后则可以通过 vagrant ssh 联入虚拟机进行进一步的环境配置,或者软件安装相关的工作,在 Windows 系统下,并不能直接通过 vagrant ssh 连到虚拟机,需要使用 SecureCRT/Putty/Xshell 等第三方工具进行连接。连接地址 127.0.0.1,端口 2222。登录的帐号 root 的密码为 vagrant

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E:\VirtualBox> vagrant up
Bringing machine 'default' up with 'virtualbox' provider...
==> default: Clearing any previously set forwarded ports...
==> default: Clearing any previously set network interfaces...
==> default: Preparing network interfaces based on configuration...
default: Adapter 1: nat
default: Adapter 2: bridged
==> default: Forwarding ports...
default: 80 => 8080 (adapter 1)
default: 22 => 2222 (adapter 1)
==> default: Booting VM...
==> default: Waiting for machine to boot. This may take a few minutes...
The guest machine entered an invalid state while waiting for it
to boot. Valid states are 'starting, running'. The machine is in the
'poweroff' state. Please verify everything is configured
properly and try again.

If the provider you're using has a GUI that comes with it,
it is often helpful to open that and watch the machine, since the
GUI often has more helpful error messages than Vagrant can retrieve.
For example, if you're using VirtualBox, run `vagrant up` while the
VirtualBox GUI is open.

如果有报上述错误,并且运行 Virtualbox 去安装系统时出错:Failed to open a session for the virtual machine,Unable to load R3 module C:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox/VBoxDD.DLL (VBoxDD): GetLastError=1790 (VERR_UNRESOLVED_ERROR).,需要使用 UniversalThemePatcher 还原未破解的 themeservice.dll themeui.dll uxtheme.dll 文件

已经打包好的下载链接 - http://pan.baidu.com/s/1c0HGj2g

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==> default: Booting VM...
==> default: Waiting for machine to boot. This may take a few minutes...
default: SSH address: 127.0.0.1:2222
default: SSH username: vagrant
default: SSH auth method: private key
default: Warning: Connection timeout. Retrying...
default: Warning: Connection timeout. Retrying...
default: Warning: Connection timeout. Retrying...

如果报 default: Warning: Connection timeout. Retrying...,建议打编辑 Vagrantfile 打开 VirtualBox 图形化界面 vb.gui = true 进一步分析错误代码和原因。

导出 box

通过 Shell 进入目录 E:\VirtualBox 后执行命令

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vagrant package

vagrant package --output NAME --vagrantfile FILE

# 可选参数:
--output NAME : (可选)设置通过 NAME 来指定输出的文件名
--vagrantfile FILE:(可选)可以将 Vagrantfile 直接封进 box 中

完成后会在当前目录就会生成 package.box,可以在家或者团队成员共享开发环境保持一致性

其它命令

vagrant up (启动虚拟机)
vagrant halt (关闭虚拟机——对应就是关机)
vagrant suspend (暂停虚拟机——只是暂停,虚拟机内存等信息将以状态文件的方式保存在本地,可以执行恢复操作后继续使用)
vagrant resume (恢复虚拟机 —— 与前面的暂停相对应)
vagrant box remove centos6.6 (移除 box,其中 centos6.6 是 box 名)
vagrant destroy (删除虚拟机,删除后在当前虚拟机所做进行的除开 Vagrantfile 中的配置都不会保留)

Laravel Homestead

细节部分可参考官方文档 - http://laravel.com/docs/5.1/homestead

  1. 下载安装包
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vagrant box add laravel/homestead

E:\Homestead>vagrant box add laravel/homestead
==> box: Loading metadata for box 'laravel/homestead'
box: URL: https://atlas.hashicorp.com/laravel/homestead
This box can work with multiple providers! The providers that it
can work with are listed below. Please review the list and choose
the provider you will be working with.

1) virtualbox
2) vmware_desktop

Enter your choice: 1
==> box: Adding box 'laravel/homestead' (v0.2.7) for provider: virtualbox
box: Downloading: https://vagrantcloud.com/laravel/boxes/homestead/versions/0.2.7/providers/virtualbox.box
box: Progress: 0% (Rate: 9d/s, Estimated time remaining: 0:05:30)11))

由于国内网络环境问题建议离线下载后手动导入

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# 输入命令初始化 
E:\Homestead>vagrant init laravel
A `Vagrantfile` has been placed in this directory. You are now
ready to `vagrant up` your first virtual environment! Please read
the comments in the Vagrantfile as well as documentation on
`vagrantup.com` for more information on using Vagrant.

# 执行添加命令
E:\Homestead>vagrant box add laravel laravel.box
==> box: Box file was not detected as metadata. Adding it directly...
==> box: Adding box 'laravel' (v0) for provider:
box: Unpacking necessary files from: file://E:/Homestead/laravel.box
box: Progress: 100% (Rate: 141M/s, Estimated time remaining: --:--:--)
==> box: Successfully added box 'laravel' (v0) for 'virtualbox'!

# 检查是否导入成功
E:\Homestead>vagrant box list
centos6.6 (virtualbox, 0)
laravel (virtualbox, 0)

# 启动 Lavarel Homestead
E:\Homestead>vagrant up
Bringing machine 'default' up with 'virtualbox' provider...
==> default: Importing base box 'laravel'...
==> default: Matching MAC address for NAT networking...
==> default: Setting the name of the VM: Homestead_default_1437217549272_56101
==> default: Clearing any previously set network interfaces...
==> default: Preparing network interfaces based on configuration...
default: Adapter 1: nat
==> default: Forwarding ports...
default: 22 => 2222 (adapter 1)
==> default: Booting VM...
==> default: Waiting for machine to boot. This may take a few minutes...
default: SSH address: 127.0.0.1:2222
default: SSH username: vagrant
default: SSH auth method: private key
default: Warning: Connection timeout. Retrying...
default:
default: Vagrant insecure key detected. Vagrant will automatically replace
default: this with a newly generated keypair for better security.
default:
default: Inserting generated public key within guest...
default: Removing insecure key from the guest if it's present...
default: Key inserted! Disconnecting and reconnecting using new SSH key...
==> default: Machine booted and ready!
==> default: Checking for guest additions in VM...
default: The guest additions on this VM do not match the installed version of
default: VirtualBox! In most cases this is fine, but in rare cases it can
default: prevent things such as shared folders from working properly. If you see
default: shared folder errors, please make sure the guest additions within the
default: virtual machine match the version of VirtualBox you have installed on
default: your host and reload your VM.
default:
default: Guest Additions Version: 4.3.14
default: VirtualBox Version: 5.0
==> default: Mounting shared folders...
default: /vagrant => E:/Homestead

登录帐户 vagrant/vagrant,开始全新的 Laravel Homestead 体验之旅吧。

文章目录
  1. 1. 前言
  2. 2. 更新历史
  3. 3. 环境准备
  4. 4. 安装 git
  5. 5. 安装 php
  6. 6. 安装 Laravel
  7. 7. 安装 Composer
  8. 8. 安装 Vagrant
  9. 9. 安装 VirtualBox
  10. 10. Vagrant 配置
    1. 10.1. 启动 Vagrant
    2. 10.2. 导出 box
    3. 10.3. 其它命令
  11. 11. Laravel Homestead